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Ludo Martens : Trotskyism in the service of the CIA against the socialist countries – Ludo Martens : El trotskismo al servicio de la CIA contra los países socialistas

dicembre 7, 2013

Ludo Martens : El trotskismo al servicio de la CIA contra los países socialistas
 El Trostskismo al servicio de la CIA   … PDF

Trotskyism in the service of the CIA against the socialist countries

Ludo Martens October 20, 1992

After the triumph of the bourgeois counter-revolution in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union , it appears without a doubt among the Communists , which is the real motivation of Trotskyism.
The development of the counter-revolutionary process in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union , we clearly reveals the meaning of class printed Trotskyists his ideological position , allowing us to verify in practice the ambivalence of speech have held for over sixty years. It is not complicated , today perceive through their language “left” the real purpose of this current. We just read the statements they have made in the last two or three years to see that its core strategy is the absolute anti -a current recruits the progressive elements of the petty bourgeoisie , to indoctrinate them in anticommunism.
In short , we say that this trend has only we carried out with perseverance, continuity and conviction combating Marxism- Leninism and the international communist movement .
It is our purpose to test the veracity of these claims, and we will do through the study and analysis of the proposals made by the Trotskyists in the time counterrevolutions called velvet , which led to the restoration of capitalism in Eastern Europe and emerging in the Soviet Union.
” The restoration of capitalism is impossible! ”
In the thirties Stalin raised an essential question : In a country in which socialism has established the dictatorship of the working class , it is possible the restoration of capitalism? Trotsky said the restoration of capitalism is impossible without an armed uprising of the bourgeoisie without a protracted civil war. His approach to “impossible restoration” , served to eliminate all political and ideological alert encouraging and stimulating a conciliatory position, both within the Party , as to the class enemy in society.
Since the Cultural Revolution , Marxist -Leninist Communist Party reaffirmed that can degenerate to be invaded by ideas and theories bourgeois and petty bourgeois . Revisionism is the adoption of the ideas of the bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie disguised with Marxist -Leninist terminology. When revisionism definitely manages to monopolize a communist party , it becomes the main instrument for the progressive bourgeois restoration , both the ideological- political and economic level .
Mandel, the main leader of the call – IV International , boasts stating that this ” Stalinist ” theory only serves to justify the arbitrary and echoing one of Trotsky ‘s theses .
” Only real fools … ”
     
In 1934 Stalin showed that current Zinoviev – Kamenev opportunistic group , necessarily lead to the restoration of capitalism in the Soviet Union. History proved that criticism of Stalin Trotsky , Zinoviev – Kamenev the group and later the followers of Bukarin , were confidence. The rejection of these proposals , during the twenties and thirties, allowed to keep the proletarian dictatorship and build the necessary political and military to defend socialism to fascist aggression . Many ideas of Trotsky , Zinoviev and Bukarin were echoed half a century after Khrushchev and Brezhnev by revisionists , and only two years after the official rehabilitation of these opportunistic ideas Gorbachev , the restoration of capitalism was real.
It is recalled that in 1943 , Trotsky against Stalin argument : ” Only real fools are able to believe that capitalists, such as private ownership of the means of production, land , propositions can be restored in a peaceful way in the Soviet Union and which lead to a bourgeois-democratic regime. Indeed capitalism can only be restored in Russia through a violent counter-revolutionary coup , which would require ten times more victims than the October Revolution and the Civil War. ” ( 1) Ten times , that means the restoration of capitalism in Russia mean a death toll ranging between 50 and 90 million …
1989 : ” The medium-term restoration impossible ”
Back in 1989, at which time the counterrevolutionary forces exerted their spread offense , Mandel persists saying that the ghost of capitalist restoration is nothing but a Stalinist lie to justify the ” repression.” In 1989 , already had passed the imperialist camp Poland and Hungary , however Mandel wrote: ” The small and middle bourgeoisie are only a minority in the society of these workers – bureaucratic states and have only limited help of international capital . summing But all this, the confluence of interests is not enough for short or medium -term capitalism can be imposed . ” ( 2)
Long since Marxist- Leninist described the four social forces that form the basis for the restoration ago. First, is the layer of bureaucrats and corrupt elements within the Party and state apparatus . Second, are the political and ideological forces of the old reactionary classes . Third, are the new bourgeois and exploitative elements that have been developed within the socialist society. Fourth and finally, are the imperialist forces , openly or clandestinely operating in the socialist countries. Mandel is not aware of the first two forms and minimizes the other , but since Reagan infiltration and capitalist intervention doubled.
Mandel uses the same arguments to support the counterrevolution in the Soviet Union :
” Where are the Soviet Union Gorbachev ? Exclude you will , being impossible, the possibility of the restoration of capitalism in the USSR , as the same way that it is impossible to eliminate capitalism , this can be either gradually restored. ” ( 3)
Trotskyists scattered to the four winds his theory of impossibility of restoration while exist the slightest resistance from the Communist Party and the State. Since the thirties, this theory helps to justify the disproportionate and counter all the opportunist currents. In the thirties and forties also supported on all current and opportunistic factions in his fight against the Marxist -Leninist Party direction. In 1956 , applauded the ” courageous – anti-Stalinism ” of Khrushchev , convirtiendosen propagandists Solzhenitsyn , the reactionary Tsar supporter , pro -Western support to all nationalist and fascist reactionary forces , as well as dissidents. They spread all anti bluntly theories that were fashionable in Gorbachovianos circles, and even spent two thirds of its own right newspaper articles taken from the Moscow News and Espoutnik . (4 ) In conclusion , on behalf of the theory of restoration impossible , Trotskyists I supported all counter until the day there was nothing of the socialist ideas and institutions created and defended by Lenin and Stalin.
After the battle ended , Mandel said in an interview after the events of this passing cynically theory inability to “restoration ” . ” Exclude the possibility of a gradual and peaceful and imperceptible restoration of capitalism This is an illusion reform before they will break … worker resistance . ” Later , he continues his statement alluding to the Trotskyist Catherine Samary say that restoration is possible, but it will “exclusively on the Turkish model … ” (5) . The evocation of an eventual restoration, no influence at all in the Trotskyist politics, which invariably keeps his primary goal : the destruction of all that is apparent to communism. So three months later , in late December 1989 when the final assault of the counter occurs, the Trotskyists launched the following slogan on the front page : ” Solidarity with the revolution that started the East … ” (6 )
On the one hand ” the bureaucracy ” other “masses ” …
The restoration impossible thesis served as camouflage for sixty years and move to defect decendemente really anticommunist .
Stalin , then Mao Tsetung , emphasized that the class struggle continues under socialism , the struggle between the socialist road and the capitalist road remains for a large historical period , and of course a capitalist restoration is always possible. That to maintain and strengthen socialism , it takes a Marxist -Leninist Communist Party authentic, a structure that at times necessary to purify their ranks opportunist currents . Socialism must be defended against their enemies , the remnants of the old reactionary classes against the new bourgeois elements who are reborn in the new regime , and against the agents of imperialism .
Trotskyist Mandel and develop original concepts to combat these “theory” : the class struggle exists within socialism actually … But this fight opposes the ” bureaucracy ” to the ” masses .” Violently denouncing ” bureaucracy ” as they did before the fascists, Trotskyites leaders support all forms of reactionary opposition against socialism , claiming that this is the meaning of her claim and the will of the ” masses .” Becoming lawyers all bourgeois forces and anti-Communists, Trotskyists placed on one side of the ” red tape ” that slows democratic freedoms , and across the forces of ” political revolution ” fighting for “real socialism.” So writes Mandel in October 1989 : “The primary meaning of all current political struggles does not revolve around the restoration of capitalism , but rather to move toward revolution -political – anti-bureaucratic , ie safeguard all democratic freedoms conquered the masses during Glasnost . ‘s main struggle is not between the pro -capitalist and anti-capitalist forces but is opposed by the bureaucracy against the people. ” ( 7) From this point of view , which places ” the bureaucracy against the masses,” Mandel openly and explicitly supported by the liberal forces , social democrats , monarchists and fascists in their struggle against the remnants of socialism.
” Glasnost is Trotskyism … ”
At the time that the international bourgeoisie recognized that the restoration of capitalism was a fact , Mandel received the honors of the anti- Soviet press . Your shamelessness is so extreme that led him to declare that Gorbachev was a great revolutionary , retomador of Trotskyist theories. Mandel says: now you can see all the communist world who the real revolutionaries and counterrevolutionaries . Trotsky , Trotskyists , Gorbachev and Gorbachev ‘s followers are in the camp of the revolution , Stalin and Stalinists are in the field of counter . Mandel stated in Managua that Stalin
represents a “violent counterrevolution ” (8 ) . Fortunately , through the efforts of Mandel and Gorbachev in 1990 we have moved towards revolution .
Here you statement Mandel Temps Nouveaux ” Temps Nouveaux : Declares Gorbachev perestroika is the new revolution Ernest Mandel : . Yeah, effectively says that, and this is actually very positive Our movement has championed for 55 years this thesis , for which it was called counterrevolutionary. Nowadays well understood, in the Soviet Union and within most of the international communist movement , where they were actually real counterrevolutionaries. ” ( 9)
It had to wait two years to see down the Soviet Union in the hands of the pro -American and Tsarist mafia, to see flourish fascist and Tsarist forces in Russia and the other republics , and to see different reactionary civil wars between the different fractions bourgeois civilians . This discovers the true face of the “revolutionaries” Glasnost and Perestroika , this also shows what political forces Mandel works , this professional anticommunism .
Catherine Samary, the other star of the IV- International , confirmed the Soviet press , Gorbachev implemented the program developed by Trotsky . She makes the praise of Glasnost : “In your country has not yet posted anything about the platform left and fought against Stalin and proposed an alternative way for the construction of socialism But you are in the process of adopting these ideas. : build a genuine socialist democracy and self-management . ” (10 )
Mandel ‘s support to Yeltsin
Mandel , a fervent supporter of Gorbachev’s Glasnost , considered itself obliged to support more forces to the “left” for Gorbachev ,becoming the spokesman for Yeltsin and Sakharov !
In early 1989 Mandel presents Yeltsin as the workers’ representative , the man of democratization , which interprets the ideas of the political class aware of the USSR ! Mandel writes in his book about Gorbachev : ” The dismissal of Yeltsin ( 11 November 1987) as leader of the CPSU is a grave in the process of democratization of the USSR setback. ” ( 11) ” Yeltsin is now the most popular political figure among Soviet workers. Spontaneously thousands of labels were made with the slogan ‘Let Yeltsin back .” All this points to the will of a conscious political class willing to preserve and enlarge freedom partial democratic obtained during the period 19861988 . ” ( 12)
On April 3, 1989 Mandel welcomes ” At birth a more radical and massive left with three lines and progressive policies that stand on the platform of Yeltsin and Sakharov : against the privileges of the bureaucracy , for equality and for more multiparty system. ” ( 13 )
Sakharov representative of the “radical left” many years ago had the reputation of CIA official in the Soviet Union. The enthusiastically supported U.S. aggression against Vietnam. He shared the idea that the Americans had won the war ” have acted more decisively in the military field and especially in the political field. ” ( 14 )
The international press has commented admiration of American capitalism by Yeltsin and Yeltsin acknowledged contacts with the CIA during his first trip to the U.S. Even a Belgian newspaper De Gazet van right as Antwerpen, acknowledging that Yeltsin was exaggerating when he said: “Capitalism is not in decline , contrary Flowers With little money you can buy everything in the streets there is no danger at night. . . even the homeless have a positive outlook on life . ” (15 ) After these openly anti-socialist purposes Mandel Yeltsin still considered as” radical democratic left” of the Communist Party of the USSR !
In the early 1990s the Trotskyist press continued to demonstrate its support for ” radical democracy” and the opposition in the Soviet Union : ” The Moskovkja Pravda of February 23, 1990 published ‘ democratic platform ‘ radical democratic opposition led by Yeltsin . the
platform requires : the exercise of power by the Soviets, chosen based on a multiparty system , the abolition of the “role” PC leader and the approval of a law legalizing multiparty system “(16 ) .
Clearly remain Trotskyists supporting those views Yeltsin , to coincide with his ” revolutionary ” line.
Mandel reaches such an extreme , declaring Yeltsin as the new Trotsky ” . Currently Yeltsin represents the trend that is the huge reduction of bureaucracy He walks in the footsteps of Trotsky. ” ( 17 )
While in 1991 Yannaviev tried to improvise a coup , Yeltsin meanwhile prepared a real coup that destroyed the entire state of the existing legal system: it was supported by a rampant international mobilization of all imperialist forces. Mandel and Trotskyists were of course really Yeltsin. ” The mobilization , new life propagated by Yeltsin and the rejection of previous system show the failure of what looks more like a route change, a coup. Should be opposed against the ringleaders, and being next to Yeltsin develop self-organization , political pluralism and freedom of opinion, which are the only warranties for coming changes . we advocate the nationalization of the properties of the Communist Party and the official unions . ” ( 18 )
For all honest anticapitalist was clear that Yeltsin represented the ultra -liberal and pro -American of the new Russian bourgeoisie, which kept with honor Tsarist heritage fractions. However Trotskyists applauded the counter-revolutionary coup Yeltsin , because it opened the way for ” self-organization ” , ie self-organization of the masses against the Communist Party , since pluralism introduced freedom for liberal parties , social democrats , fascists and tsar . Freedom to all the bourgeois parties , accompanied by the inevitable repression of communist organizations , even coming to a ban , which is inherent in all pluralistic bourgeois system.
A year later, no one could deny even the big international bourgeoisie , the character of extreme right and pro-imperialist Yeltsin .
As true anti provocateurs , Trotskyists dared headline: ” Boris Yeltsin Follow the footsteps of Josef Stalin? ” ( 19). This example shows us that these anti recoil not any meanness . They supported all the way to liberal anti- Yeltsin in his struggle and compared it to his respected revolutionary leader , the great Trotsky , and after a few months , when the capitalist restoration was done , after Yeltsin honored the memory of the old Tsars , Trotskyists declared that Yeltsin, his worst enemy is like Stalin .
” A big sigh of relief … ”
In April 1989 , Mandel published a book which reflected everything I thought about Gorbachev , Yeltsin , and especially Glasnost .
Do not forget that the bourgeoisie hardly hide his enthusiasm for the changes that Gorbachev introduced . Mrs. Thatcher declared supporter of Glasnost and Perestroika , the bourgeoisie announced the end of communism and the beginning of an era of peace, democracy and freedom. With its overlapping ” language left” Mandel supported as provided current fashion in the bourgeoisie. In his book he writes: ” The nightmare of Stalinism and Brezhnevism is definitely surpassed the Soviet people and the international proletariat and all humanity can breathe a sigh of relief. . ” (20 ) However , at this time we have emphasized that the counter-revolution in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union was a strategic victory of imperialism, this meant a catastrophe for the people of the former socialist countries accentuate repression in third world , where the people would be the first victim of the changes. At that time the Trotskyists said : ” The madness of the direction of PTB is accentuated. ” (21 ) In the same Trotskyist newspaper, explained that “the big sigh of relief for mankind” , promising a future without imperialist military intervention to the peoples of the third world ! ” Mass movements in Eastern Europe also pose a threat to ….
imperialism. An international imperialist intervention in the third world becomes much more difficult. “(22 ) And when a year later the imperialist coalition turned its barbaric aggression against Iraq , Trotskyists declared that they were fighting against Saddam Hussein and against the Allies . Meanwhile ” sigh of relief ” in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union , became a cry of horror at unemployment, misery, poverty , reactionary nationalism and civil war. was Dreaming ” sigh of relief ” , the Soviet people, Mandel tries to give a finishing touch to your book summarize the last page . ” current developments confirm the predictions of Trotsky , half a century ago , seem more realistic and probable ” if the proletariat is activated , is floating in the Stalinist apparatus the air. still resists If measures are taken , no type civil war, but rather police measures . here is not at any point in an uprising against the dictatorship of the proletariat , but if you remove the weeds. ” He continues: ” The revolution that bureaucracy prepared against her, is not a social revolution like that of October 1917, it is not about changing the economic basis of society , not to replace one form of property other way will be . . ” ( 23 )
It is commendable that the old Mandel associated Trotsky ‘s analysis of the Glasnost (who just a year after anti serve to unmask as irremediable ) . After 300 pages of analysis , Mandel concludes that Trotsky ‘s prediction could be made thanks to the Glasnost . Half a century ago as Trotsky was trying to provoke an anti-Bolshevik uprising. As the dictatorship of the proletariat was consistent , and the Bolshevik Party he mobilized proactively to the masses of peasants and workers , Trotsky took refuge in the seductive demagoguery “left” : if it overthrows the ” Stalinist ” party, the dictatorship of the proletariat remain in force , and only end up with ” bureaucratic fallacy ” . Removal deworming a healthy body. There will be more reactionary classes or revenge in the body of Soviet society and there will be no new bourgeois forces . The socialist body up against the ” Stalinist parasite ” . Trotsky had to assure the workers that waiver would not change the economic basis of socialism, that at no time think reintroducing private property. Of course! Fifty years later would Mandel the same assurances with these statements as a conclusion in his book : Glasnost and the process of “democratization” in Soviet society , led to the end , retain and strengthen the dictatorship of the proletariat , and not change anything in regarding the economic basis of society.
Two years later we were able to attend the criminal and counterrevolutionary overthrow , which was justified by these warm words.
The ” anti-bureaucratic political revolution ” of the Trotskyists
For sixty years, the Trotskyists insist they want to eradicate bureaucracy in socialist countries through a “political revolution.” The hatred of Trotsky ‘s socialist system is notorious in its characterization of the Bolshevik leadership of the Soviet Union : the ” new breed of rapacious rich” , the “total oligarchy ” , the “new aristocracy ” , the ” gang of Stalin ” ( 24), the ” new breed of oppressors and parasites ” , “total bureaucracy ,” the ” autocratic clique ” . (25 ) This is the same speech that can be found in fascist literature in the late thirties.
According to Trotsky the mobilization of all the forces of opposition to the “bureaucracy”, will lead to a political revolution to free the genuine socialist society bureaucrats parasites. This theory is , according to Mandel Group , the core of the Trotskyist doctrine . ” Theorizing the USSR degeneramiento bureaucratic and political revolution, is the most important acquisition of the Trotskyist movement programmatic Political revolution and the tasks that comprise preparation give the reason for existence to the IV- International . ” ( 26 )
Provocations serving the Nazis
The actual meaning of the theory of ” political revolution ” , it became clear in the course of the fighting in the thirties. All Western bourgeoisie showed its positive assessment by Trotsky for his ” in-depth analysis of the revolution betrayed.” Actually Trotsky spoke as an anti- possessed and talk against the Bolshevik Party and Stalin were and are applauded even by the ideologues of imperialism.
We just give an example here . In 1982 Henri Bernard , professor emeritus at the Royal Military Academy of Belgium, published a book to prevent public opinion from the Soviet threat . He says 1934 looks like 1982 , the Nazis communists yesterday today resemble the antifascist Einstein found his follower in the anti Solzhenitsyn . ( 27 )
To show the threat surrounding the West in 1982 , Bernard deemed useful to a historical tour of the Soviet Union from 1917 .
Here are some quotes collected during that long trip: ” Lenin , like Trotsky, was a human being His love life was not depressed by any Finnish Trotsky should normally succeed Lenin Despite differences of opinion , Lenin still retained great . . . affection for Trotsky , and thought of him as his successor. was finding that Stalin was brutal . Domestically , Trotsky rejected the paralyzing bureaucracy scary communist machine. finally, Trotsky argued that a system could be developed only with great freedom of opinion, and constructively critical . artist , scholar , and often unhappy prophet , could not be reconciled with the primary tenets of the Party. ” ( 28 )
Thus speaks one of the main leaders of the military service research, about the merits of Trotsky.
In 1938 , Hitler ‘s aggression is a constant threat to the Soviet Union , at which the Communist Party carried out a final struggle against the defeatist and partners , and it is there, when the Party mobilized all forces to fight gigantic approaching , Trotsky holding his provocative agitation, which served story especially the Nazis. In 1938 all Soviet communists and patriots were preparing , body and soul , to the political and military tasks in outlook from Nazi aggression. The insane Trotsky called for an armed uprising , just found resonance in the worst enemies of socialism. Here are some views that Trotsky defended between 1938 and 1940.
” You can only ensure the defense of the country through the destruction of the autocratic clique of saboteurs and defeatist ” – July 3, 1938 . ( 29 )
At that time, before the Nazi threat , tensions in the Soviet Union became older . Some opportunistic groups , for whom the sacrifices were too many, and some counterrevolutionary groups had planned a coup . Debugging strictly necessary in view of the prospects of war , should be directed precisely against these groups . Trotsky gave a new argument to support the agitation against the Party : The defeat of the USSR by the Nazis is a fact if Stalin and Stalinists remain in power , so you have to remove the current party leadership by a survey. This coincided exactly with the goals of the Nazis , who wanted to trigger a civil war to make their plans to invade more easily.
” Only the overthrow of the separatist group the Kremlin can restore military strength of the USSR. Everyone who directly or indirectly support Stalinism , all exaggerate the strength of his army, are the great enemies of the socialist revolution and oppressed peoples . ” – October 10, 1938 . ( 30 )
Should be borne in mind that the German Nazis believed in this propaganda and strongly supported Bolshevism to end it . But after 6 months of war had to acknowledge that they had underestimated the military potential and the combativeness of the Soviets.
“Just a proletariat uprising against Soviet tyranny shameful new parasites may save what remains in the foundation of society conquests October ” – November 14, 1938 . ( 31 )
. ” Conquests of the October Revolution only you can serve the people if they are able to act against the Stalinist bureaucracy , as when acted against tsarist bureaucracy and the bourgeoisie ( … ) This can only be done one way: By through the rise of the workers, peasants and soldiers of the Red Army against the new breed of oppressors and parasites. to prepare a survey of this magnitude needs a new party , the IV-
International ” – May 1940 ( 32).
Readers will note the date on which there was this delirious prose May 1940. It had been seven months that Britain and France had declared war on Hitler’s Germany , two months before Finland , an ally of Germany , capitulated to the Soviet Union after three months of war . Stalin tried by all means to gain time , knowing that the Nazi aggression could be carried out at any time. Amid these circumstances Trotsky launched criminal and outrageous provocations , called the people and later the army against ” the new class of parasites.” Back then it was very popular this terminology among the followers of Hitler. How could the Bolsheviks did not come to the conclusion that Trotsky had been derailed such , acting as an agent of Hitler?
Given his anti- statements during the period 19381940 , Trotsky and his small group of acolytes had become provocative , conscious and unconscious , in the service of the Nazis. But they could not exercise the slightest influence on the development of the fighting. Thanks to a huge effort in the organization and mobilization of the population, the Red Army and the guerrilla groups , thanks to the superhuman efforts in the field of military production and the construction of new factories, the Bolsheviks were able to prepare the country effectively for an inevitable confrontation with the Nazi criminals .
At the end of the antifascist war small Trotskyist groups worldwide descreditados and were completely isolated .
Khrushchev gave the opportunity to get up with anti- Trotskyist criticism of the gigantic work of Comrade Stalin taking the words of world reaction . So today Khrushchev line that was deepened and extended by Brezhnev and Gorbachev led to the restoration of wild capitalism .
In view of this , we say today , who are not able to recognize the provocative nature , pro-fascist and anti- thesis of Trotsky mentioned , we are not true Communists.
Mandel supports Ukrainian Nazis
Now look at what political and social forces have been supported by the Trotskyists from the second world war on behalf of his ” political revolution ” .
When the Nazis invaded in 1941 a part of the Soviet Union , they founded and supported in Ukraine nationalist and pro – Nazi movement , who murdered thousands of Jews, Poles and Communists. In 1944, his departure left Nazi fascist groups trained by Ukrainian Nazi German officers. The group applauded the Nazi counter Mandel , as if this were a part of the ” anti-bureaucratic political revolution ” ! Incredible? Judge for yourself .
Mandel wrote in 1988 . “During the Second World War IV- International underestimated the revolutionary potential of the Ukrainian nationalist movement International only perceived the existence of revolutionary national liberation movement five years after the war, when the Ukrainian fighters freed his last battle. ” ( 33 )
Here were to be seen as provocative Trotskyists clearly the direct service of the Nazis. Trotskyists used this opportunity lies in that since 1945 , was released by the U.S. Information Service , under which Ukrainian nationalists had fought against Hitler and Stalin. What is the truth?
In a magazine for ex – combatants the Eastern Front , recounted a German Waffen -SS officer experiences in Ukraine. He recognizes that the Ukrainian people ” was very disappointed with the German policy during the invasion. ” Before leaving the German army had formed the Galicia division of the Waffen -SS , which was composed and directed by Ukrainian German military . Melnik , the commander of the Ukrainian Insurrectionary Army took ” the responsible decision to fight on two fronts . Against the Soviets and against the Germans ” ( … the Germans were already withdrawing ) . The Nazi officer describes the struggles he released in July 1944 along with ” their Ukrainian ” against the Red Army . “The fact that German soldiers and
Ukrainians have fought together against the common enemy gave a new dimension to the history of Nazi – Ukrainian relations. ” (34 )
It’s really a wonderful reality this ” Trotskyist political revolution ” with the Waffen- SS in the lead!
With the counter in Berlin and Budapest
The vast majority of the German population actively supported Hitler’s regime during the war . Five years after the defeat of Nazi influence was present in both West Germany and the East . In the West are the old Nazis and Nazi collaborators at the head of large corporations , judiciary and army. The cold war unleashed by the United States and England , preserved anticommunism among those in the GDR longed for the old system. When in 1953 in East Berlin busting a revolt led by old Nazis and supported by the group of General Gehlen ( former head of the Nazi secret service and defected to the CIA) , Mandel applauded this ” anti-bureaucratic struggle.” ” Caste bureaucrat does not shrink the worst cruelties , this history lesson was written in blood on the walls of Berlin in 1953. ” ( 35 )
In Hungary had mastered relentlessly fascist Horthy regime from 1919 to 1944. In 1956 the Hungarian counter- busting , launched by fascists supported by the CIA , Mandel applauded : ” The Hungarian revolution of October-November 1956 is what has gone further down the road to the anti-bureaucratic political revolution. ” ( 36 )
We add here that those in 1989 in Budapest called free trade and the NATO alliance declared thereby implementing the program of anti Uprising of 1956 . This they honored the memory of its ” National Hero ” , Imre Nagy , who on October 31, 1956 was withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact and declared it the ” neutrality” of Hungary … this was precisely the most repeated phrase was formulated in Radio Free Europe. ( 37) The Trotskyist press adopted the large anti manifestations summer of 1989 in Hungary. So Mandel writes “This week a million people protested in Budapest, paying tribute to the memory of Comrade Imre Nagy, the communist leader of this revolution government , executed by the Stalinists. ” ( 38) ( Parenthetically, the Fascist press also made honors Nagy, executed by the nationalist Stalinist supporter … ) . The same Trotskyist newspaper declared further: ” Imre Nagy had to pay with his life for his courageous alongside the councils of workers in the greater Budapest action These tips demanded democracy within socialism . . ” ( 39 ) In the book ” The USSR and Counterrevolution Velvet ” have devoted a chapter to the analysis of the counterrevolution in Hungary 1956 .
With Solidarnosc , the ” Workers Power ”
Solidarnosc was presented by the Trotskyists as an organization committed to the fight against the Stalinist bureaucracy and proletarian socialism ! The IV- International writes in 1980 : . ” Solidarnosc works , at least at the local and regional level , objectively seen increasingly as an organ of dual power , the anti-bureaucratic political revolution has just begun in Poland The Polish experience shows content of the proletarian revolution of democratic and national requirements in burocratisados workers states . ” ( 40 )
Trotskyists complain that even in 1981 , Solidarnosc not want to take power, although they represent alternative power, the workers . “People are disarmed by the inability of Solidarnosc taking the power . Would be tragic at this time if the hatred of totalitarianism were to disarm the workers who are confronting a totalitarian dictatorship What exists now against the state is the strength of Polish workers . ” (41 ) And when extending Solidarnosc in 1989 with the help of Reagan, Bush and Mrs. Thatcher and all Western intelligence services and is ready to take power , Mandel has not yet
changed his mind as it pertains to the true nature of Solidarnosc and declares : “The government of Solidarnosc is a victory for the working class. ” ( 42 )
With the CIA , in Czechoslovakia
In 1990 took power in Czechoslovakia Vaclav Havel , generally known as a contributor to Radio Free Europe and the CIA , naming the Trotskyist Peter Uhl known as director of the Czechoslovak press agency , official spokesman of the new pro -American bourgeois state ! Uhl writes: “You can argue until the point has been justified on the theory of political revolution Trotsky I think it’s in Czechoslovakia where reality comes closest to this theory. . ” ( 43 ) On 12 November Mandel thinks the same, and this idea leads to the absurd : the Czechoslovak counter compare … the Great October Socialist Revolution ! In its summary written Trotskyists “Our Comrade Ernest Mandel has confirmed clearer than ever that there is no doubt what we now live in Czechoslovakia and the GDR is the real revolution with a magnitude and a depth not seen since the Russian Revolution , 1917. ” ( 44 )
Peter Uhl gave an extraordinary description of ” political revolution ” in Czechoslovakia , as an anti-communist revolution on the front of all reactionary forces : ” There will be some who saw 77 Letter a step towards political revolution , also , others saw in it means to preach the word of Christ was a real laboratory of tolerance. ” ” While it is said that it is against the ‘ communism ‘ , against Stalinism , against bureaucracy , everyone agrees. ” ( 45 ) Linda Description Front of clerical fascists, the reactionary nationalists, social democrats, the agents of the Radio Free Europe and the Trotskyists in service.
We add what Trotskyists taught us in 1989 : ” That the history of Czechoslovakia took a fantastic rematch Dubcek ‘s honor is restored. . ” ( 46 ) Although true communists could diverge opinion on the question whether the Soviet intervention of 1968 was fair or not, there will be no doubt in regard to the analysis unanimous ” Prague Spring ” as a counter- social democratic type .
In ” The USSR and Counterrevolution Velvet ” , we devote an entire chapter to Czechoslovakia between 1968 and 1989 where the relationship between the social democrats ideas Dubcek in 1968 and the Velvet Revolution and Havel Uhl says. The views of Castro , who supported the intervention are also discussed , and China, which sentenced .
The proletarian revolution in the GDR !
Since September 1989, the vengeful bourgeoisie supported the Federal Republic of Germany with large financial resources , with its radio and television anticommunist agitation in the GDR. Mandel The group says that ” a true political revolution begins.” ( 47 )
Two weeks later,Mandel welcomes the proletarian revolution in the GDR ! ” The success of the mass movement that has rocked the RDA have the magnitude of a revolution . This movement goes beyond what has been seen in Europe since 1968 , perhaps since the Spanish revolution. Proletarian character which has started revolution in the GDR is demonstrated by the vast disturbance in the factories. ” ( 48 ) A month later, in December 1989 the excitement of Mandel reached its peak : “I’m really excited about everything that happens in Berlin Everything Rosa Luxemburg , Trotsky and Lenin ever expected , is now done . . the first revolution , since the revolution of the Netherlands in the sixteenth century , which is not threatened by an international military intervention. We are facing the first German generation from fully anti-militarist and anti-nationalist hundred years ago. thing that stimulates my enthusiasm is the size and strength of this popular movement. from
five hundred thousand inhabitants of Leipzig, took to the streets for eight consecutive Mondays between 200 and 300 thousand people. In East Germany the anti-socialist current is low. No one can say where the next revolution happen in Russia, France , South Africa or Spain , but what is certain is that the revolutions in East Germany and Czechoslovakia have their fruits. ” ( 49 ) To illustrate the socialist nature of these movements , quote IV- International … a declaration of a social group. Yet social democracy is precisely one of the strengths of German imperialism and expansionist power . ‘s strategy and tactics that Willy Brandt used to infiltrate and influence the communist Party of the GDR , to divide and thus destroy it, played a major role in the opportunist degeneration of the SED
Trotskyists cited the following: ” The necessary democratization in the GDR opposition assumed power, and claim to be the true spokesman of the ruling party for us , forming a Social Democratic Party is very important Our program guidelines . . : formation of a rule of law, parliamentary democracy and multiparty system ; social market economy with a ban on the formation of monopolies , and the freedom to establish independent unions. ” ( 50 )
In this way the Trotskyists have a program that openly praises the bourgeois regime , as an illustration of “proletarian ” character of the ” political revolution ” that is taking place …
Glasnost and the multiparty system against ” Stalinist ”
Mandel established three criteria to distinguish the followers of ” Stalinism ” , and the forces that favored the way to the “democratic and self-managed socialism” : the position regarding the Glasnost Gorbachev , the role of the communist party, and repression in Tiananmen square ( 51).
“Viva Glasnost ! ”
” Glasnost We define as a process of policy changes that expand the exercise of democratic freedoms,” Mandel wrote . ( 52 )
In the book ” The USSR and Counterrevolution Velvet ” , we have offered a full chapter to show that the five years of Glasnost , systematically prepared the spirits for the entire restoration of full capitalism, the Glasnost has resurrected the ideals of the great 1917 Russian bourgeoisie , the Glasnost gave voice to all anti-Communists, people from the CIA William Colby, the former director , or pastor Moon , the followers of the tsarist and tsarist Orthodox Church , former Nazi collaborators Vlassov and men and Bandera. Mandel spoke of ” democratic rights ” generally classless , when Gorbachev gave freedom to all who wanted to counter bury the past structures and socialist influences. The basic principle of Leninism is that socialism is a class dictatorship , uniting workers , against the forces of the bourgeoisie against the exploiters. Lenin says: “We recognize that all freedom , if she is not subject to release the work of capitalist oppression , is a hoax. ” ( 53 )
“Down the only party ! ”
Glasnost opened the floor to all anti currents, and enabled all capitalist and pro – imperialist forces be organized and openly fight for the restoration. Mandel hailed in 1989 the establishment of anti- and counter parties in the USSR . “The beginning of genuine elections , as manifested today in the USSR , is a great
step forward. But I really need free elections , free to establish trends, fractions and various parties, without ideological restrictions. ” ( 54 )
Between 19891990 , Mandel manages to find his greatest dream , which is legalization ” of various ideological parties without restrictions ” as well as the possibility that the Soviet bourgeoisie manifest through social democratic parties , liberals, Christian Democrats, nationalists – tsarist , etc . This pluralism bourgeois framework of socialism and to bring the full restoration of capitalism. Today , the practice of class struggle has shown the character and nature of this fundamental requirement of the Trotskyists . With this, once again the truth is found that was often repeated by the Bolshevik Party and Comrade Stalin : Trotskyism social democracy is right , packed in babbler “left” . In the chapter ” single party or multiparty system ,” Mandel says, ” If it is assumed that only can legalize those parties and organizations that do not have programs where bourgeois is to draw the line of demarcation (and petty bourgeois ? ) ? parties with members mostly workers shall be prohibited , but defending a bourgeois ideology? where is the line between a ” bourgeois program ‘and’ reformist ideology ‘? becoming So reformist parties should be banned ? must remove social democracy ? ( …) No worker authentic democracy is possible without the freedom to establish a multiparty system ” (55 ) Yes, Lenin banned social democratic parties , ie menchevistas and social Revolutionaries , because they fought during the civil war on the side of Tsarism , the bourgeoisie and the interventionist armies , and because they were defeated along with the feudal forces and the bourgeoisie . And Lenin stressed many times that an intelligent representative of the big bourgeoisie , Milioukov , fully understood that during the first period only one social democratic “left” party would have a chance to mobilize the masses in the anti-Bolshevik struggle.
“Do not suppress the counter ! ”
Trotskyism never lose sight of your enemy , Marxism -Leninism and the international communist movement. So Mandel concentrates all its efforts against those who denounce the counter processes.
During 1989, two political trends facing attempted counterrevolution underway. As first forces in Eastern Europe for many years showed the type of opportunistic inclinations Khrushchev , and that with respect to the Soviet Union showed blind following , but began to realize the true intentions of Gorbachev , and as second the Chinese Communist Party, anti-socialist suppressed the revolt in Pekin .
To speed up the restoration process in the Soviet Union , Gorbachev signaled the anticommunist forces in Eastern Europe , trying to prevent build a genuine anti- communist restoration front. At the same time , restoration in Eastern Europe had to encourage and assist the “reformers ” of the USSR.
When the restoration was virtually completed in Poland and Hungary , Mandel said :
” Eastern Europe is shaken at this point by an unprecedented crisis since the end of World War II . Contrary to what a superficial analysis might make it seem , the European bourgeoisie no frowns this destabilization . She bears no hope of recovering the Eastern countries to capitalism. ” ( 56 ) A year later, that statement left to Mandel as the clown of the counter . But served to justify aid to anti-socialist forces in their assault against ” bureaucracy.” Mandel undermined all vigilance against the new bourgeoisie and imperialism.
At the same time , established an unrivaled surveillance Mandel weak against communist forces resisting the offensive bourgeoisie! ” He is trying to organize a kind of ‘ international face ‘ anti – Gorbachev , which includes those who are called ‘ conservative ‘ in Romania , Czechoslovakia , East Germany , neo – Stalinists minorities in Poland and Hungary. ” ( 57 )
In April 1989 , Mandel welcomes the evident progress of bourgeois restoration in Poland and Hungary , which he calls ” pluralistic experience.” Havel is your hero and opponents of the restoration are irreducible enemies. ” At the time that the first steps in Poland and Hungary in a limited experience of pluralism, Prague address reaffirms the principle of ‘ leading role of the party ‘ ( … ) The press in East Germany continues to support repression Czechoslovakia , and stimulates the formation of the axis Berlin- Prague – Bucharest against Perestroika . a Havel, Neues Deutschland, points out provocative . ” ” Please send messages of solidarity to Vaclav Havel in jail. ” ( 58 ) For each Trotskyists repression of anti-socialist forces, each suversivos imprisonment of agents working for the CIA , as Havel, is a monstrous crime .
In May 1989 , the anti- Beijing students had hailed Gorbachev shouting : ” Long live the Glasnost and Perestroika ” and ” Long live Solidarnosc ” . When the June 4, 1989 the counterrevolutionary revolts were suppressed , Mandel got off the international extreme right , at that time led by the Kuomintang , the Fascist Party to power
in Taiwan. In a first reaction to the events in Pekin, Mandel wrote . ” … The bureaucratic caste does not shrink from the most revolting crimes This lesson of history has already been written in blood on the walls of Berlin in 1953 , Prague in 1968 in Gdansk in 1970 and Warsaw in 1981. magnitude of the cruelties in Beijing can be compared only with the way the Hungarian revolution was crushed in 1956. ( … ) the executioners of Pekin have not yet won the battle and the Chinese people now stands . insurrection spreads across the country. army crumbles and a civil war threat. ” (59) As Taiwan ‘s fascists , Trotskyists expected broke out in China a “real civil war” against ” bureaucratic class.” After Mandel has a “theoretical ” analysis which ensures: (!) ” The municipality of Beijing in April- May 1989 was the beginning of a real political revolution that was to replace the corupto and inefficient power of a caste of bureaucrats , by the power of the masses authentic ( … ) the masses rose in Pekin had no interest in restoring capitalism . Nor was his goal. ” ( 60 )
Although they were not the only happily save the honor to be , quickly declared : ” Only the left wing of the Communist Party of the USSR has saved the honor of communism. ” ” Today we are proud to go hand in hand with other communists in our protest against the bloody repression in China. ‘s First reaction it was that of Boris Yeltsin. ‘ What happens in China is a crime ‘ declare the newly- elected Supreme Soviet. ” ( 61 ) Of course, Mandel was proud of the company Yeltsin.
In the ” Tien An Men 1989 : Revisionist derives the counter-revolutionary uprising ” assay , we demonstrated the true character of the movement of Pekin .
Fang Li- Zhi , arguably the spiritual father of the student “protest” of Pekin, said January 17, 1989 : “Socialism , Lenin – Stalin – type is completely discredited Mao Does the typical Chinese way of dictatorship. with the free market ? socialist dictatorship is intertwined with the system of collective ownership and ideology is contrary to property rights required by the free market. ” Three of the top leaders in Beijing , Yan Jiaqi , Wang Runnan Wuer Kiaxi and took refuge in France and there instituted the Federation for Democracy . They set goals in your program: “Developing a private sector economy and end the one-party dictatorship .” On behalf of the multi-party system , they were annexed to fascist party the Kuomintang. Wuer Kiaxi praised in the Trotskyist press , met on January 29, 1990 with the head of the Taiwanese espionage in the People’s Republic of China. To him, John Chang, declared : ” The communication between the anti- Chinese is the first step towards unity. ” Yan and Wang Jiagi Runnan also visited Taiwan. Yan said that “the fact that Taiwan has a democratic government welcomes us . This seems to me the most important for the unification of Taiwan and mainland China base. ” Yueh Wu , the leader of the ” Independent Workers Union ” , so beloved by the Trotskyists , arrived in Taiwan on June 16, 1990 … invited by the World Anti-Communist League. ( 62 )
So , in an attempt to differentiate the Stalinists, who advocate Marxist- Leninist principles , of the followers of ” multiparty socialism,” Mandel released a third criterion : ” Another indicator is the position on the bloody suppression of the Commune Pekin . Nearly all
parties who are followers of Glasnost , we find again among those who condemned the cruelties in Tienanmen Square . “(63 )
The ” Stalinist ” from Pyongyang to Havana
In October 1989 , Mandel forces classified as ” Stalinist ” Communist parties of China , East Germany , Vietnam , Romania, Czechoslovakia , Bulgaria , Japan, India ( PCI- Marxist ) , North Korea , Albania , Portugal and he lists the groups of Albanians and pro – Maoist . And the Cuban Communist Party.
When Mandel states that ” the Cuban Communist Party occupies a special position ” refers to your particular tactic , with respect to Cuba to help the destruction of the Communist Party. This is clarified based on the thesis that proposes : “The attacks of Fidel Castro and the Cuban leadership against Glasnost , meaning against the partial democratization process that is underway in the USSR , are contrary to the interests of Soviet proletariat , the world proletariat and the Cuban revolution . They risk of provoking a crisis of legitimacy of the Cuban leadership , to a party of the masses , especially in young people. ” ” The limitations of freedom of thought are becoming more abundant in Cuba . ” The Communist Party ” replaced ” the masses . “This ideological painful setback in the long run it’s suicide . ” Castro can not effectively combat ” the bureaucratic degeneration of the Cuban state ” because he ” rejects the Glasnost , pluralist democracy , institutional control by the masses.” ” No it is nothing more than bureaucratic struggle against bureaucracy . ‘s Is headed for a defeat as we have seen in the USSR and the PRC ” (64 ) This shows that the hatred of the Trotskyists by ” bureaucratic regime one-party ” extends to the ” unique Cuban Party. ” If your tactical approach differs, because they are convinced that they can more effectively destroy the communist movement in Latin America , through infiltration of the Cuban Communist Party associates and parties to Cuba . This has been clearly demonstrated in the work that these destructive anti- executed for ten years within the FSLN. Now they hope to approach the wing “progressive , anti – bureaucratic and reformist” of the Cuban Communist Party. They hope that the ongoing meetings with Soviet Cubans will be sufficient to have formed Glasnost and supporters of a multiparty system .
Between times, we have had the opportunity to verify the ex – USSR and Eastern Europe , the consequences left by the tips Mandel : triumph of the counter , a full restoration of capitalism resurgence of fascism and reactionary nationalism , a capitalism of the wildest , where the super-rich have led millions of people to poverty , civil war. There is no doubt that the Cuban Communist Party , will take steps to prevent the infiltration of these counter measures and anti professionals .
Explanatory Note to the reader
The text on the PTB Trotskyism , we add a job that includes a lecture he gave the cro . Sergio Ortiz Liberation Party Argentina in November 1987 to cadres and PL .
This text is a useful supplement to the information in the prospectus of the PTB and therefore have asked the author for permission to distribute both documents together.
In a recent note about this document, the author covers certain aspects of the Trotskyist position on Cuba , which we reproduce here:
” Trotskyists mistreat socialist Cuba as if it were the ‘ bad guy ‘ . They hit hard against the government of Fidel Castro, with some nuances. The most recalcitrant
Argentina is the MAS, that his act of last May ( Plaza Once in Buenos Aires ) included convening this slogan : ” Out capitalists Castro and Cuba .” The P. O. meanwhile, calls ‘ democratic freedoms and organization for Cuban exploited masses ‘ . We fervently defend socialist Cuba as the Latin American flag wind that is blowing despite the double lock and cross pro-American as president Carlos Menem. Only in this context to express our fraternal reviewed certain facts (eg the Cuban endorsement Argentina ‘s bid to join the Security Council of the UN) .
Trotskyists treat blocked Cuba with an iron fist , and instead , fill counterrevolutions praise that restored capitalism in the former USSR and Eastern Europe, and strengthened the maneuverability of the Group of 7 . Without the tactical strengthening their bellicosity of imperialism in Panama , the Gulf War , Somalia, the Torricelli law against Cuba , etc would be inexplicable . The Trotskyist position meant , beyond the will of devoted militants there at the base, pandering to imperialism. At worst imperialism. So are the Trotskyists : intolerant of the only Latin American socialist revolution and counterrevolution mellow fans from ’89 and ’90 , Thatcher , Bush and Menem ( true capitalist restoration under his time not by the enemy but by a Trotskyist of these, the great Marxist revolutionary Mao Tse- Tung ) .
It has started working class resistance in Russia, Poland , Germany, etc. .. restorers against governments , no apology to the Trotskyists , who favored the restoration and planted a big political confusion to qualify for ‘ workers’ revolution ‘ . Of such treachery can not merely go with some criticism , much more difficult in the case of the Trotskyists , so reluctant to lower self-criticism. On the subject of the Russian revolution and counter-revolution will be impossible to hit unless they depart from the line of her inspiring , Leon Trotsky , who was Lenin faced in 1902 and thereafter . (Author’s note , Argentina , 29/06/93 ) . ”
( 1) Trotsky , Stalinism L’ appareil du policier , Union générale d’ éditions Ed , 1976 , Collection 10-18, p.26
( 2) Mandel, Inprecor , No. 295, 16-29 octobre 1989 , p.20 .
( 3) Mandel, Où va l’ USSR Gorbachev ? , Ed La Breche , Montreuil , 1989 , p.20 et 23.
( 4) Rood , No. 14, 15 août1989
(5) Rood , 24 octobre 1989 , p.6 -7
(6 ) Rood , No. 24, 26 décembre 1989, p.1 .
( 7) Mandel, Inprecor , No. 295, 16-29 octobre 1989 , p.20 .
( Inprecor , 11-24 septembre 1992 , p. 19 .
( 9) Temps Nouveau , No. 38-1990 , p.41- 42 .
(10 ) and Catherine Samary dans Argumenti fakti , 2 décembre 1989 Inprecor , No. 302, 9-23 février 1990 , p.27 .
( 11) Mandel, Où va l’ USSR Gorbachev ? , Ed La Breche , Montreuil , 1989 p. 303 .
( 12) Ibid , p.305 -306
( 13) Inprecor , n ° 285, 3 avril 1989 , p.4 .
( 14) Sakharov, Mon pays et le monde , Ed Seuil, 1975 , p.75 .
(15 ) Gazet van Antwerpen, 18 septembre 1989 , p.6.
(16 ) Inprecor , No. 304, 9-22 mars 1990 , p.36 .
( 17) Mandel, Financieel Ekonomische Tijd , 23 mars 1990: Ernest Mandel, Gorbachev is you vergelijken Roosevelt met De Gaulle .
( 18) Inprecor , hors série , 29 août 1991 , p. 1-3 .
(19 ) Harry Mol, Rood , No. 2, 22 janvier 1992 , p.20 .
(20 ) Mandel, Où va l’ USSR Gorbachev ? , Ed La Breche , Montreuil , 1989 p.23 .
( 21) Rood 9 January 1990 , p. 10.
(22 ) Ibid , p. 12.
( 23) Mandel, Où va l’ USSR Gorbachev ? , Ed La Breche , Montreuil , 1989 p.340 .
( 24) Trotsky , Stalinism L’ appareil du policier , Union gén . d’ Editions, Paris, 1976 , Collection 10-18, p.193 , 256 , 257, 247.
(25 ) Trotsky , La Lutte antibureaucratique in USSR , Union gén . d’ Editions, 1975 , p.300 , 301, 169,
213 .
(26 ) Pierre Turpin , Le trotskysme aujourd’hui , Ed L’ Harmattan, Paris, 1988 , p.61- 62 .
( 27) Bernard Henri , 1982 , p.9 .
( 28) Ibid , p.48 -49.
( 29) Trotsky , Stalinism L’ appareil du policier , Union gén . d’ Editions, Paris, 1976 , Collection 10-18,
p.169
(30 ) Ibid , p.188 .
(31 ) Ibid , p.206 .
(32 ) Ibid , p.302 -303 .
( 33) Pierre Le trotskysme aujourd’hui Turpin , Ed L’ Harmattan, Paris, 1988 , p.23 .
(34 ) Berkenkruis , june 1992 , n ° 6, p.4- 5, one article of Der reprennant Freiwillige , octobre 1956. (35 ) Rood , 6 juni 1989 , p.2 .
(36 ) Inprecor , Congrès mondial XIe the IVe Internationale , novembre 1979 , p.250 .
(37 ) Ludo Martens , L’ USSR et contre- révolution the Velour , Ed EPO , Brussels, 1990 , p.107 . ( 38 ) Rood , 20 juin 1989 , p. 6.
( 39 ) Rood , No. 12, 20 juin 1989 , p.12 .
(40 ) Inprecor , n ° 105 , 6 juillet 1981 , p.14 .
(41 ) Sean Connoly , Inprecor , No. 108, September 14 . 1981 , p.24 .
( 42 ) Mandel, Inprecor , n ° 283 , 6 mars 1989 , p.4 .
( 43 ) Petr Uhl, Inprecor , No. 304, 9-22 mars 1990 , p.26 .
( 44 ) Rood , 26 décembre 1989 , p.5 .
( 45 ) Inprecor , n ° 296 , 30 octobre – 12 novembre 1989 , p.4 .
( 46 ) Rood , 26 décembre 1989 , p. 8.
( 47 ) Inprecor , n ° 296 , 30 octobre – 12 novembre 1989 , p.4 .
( 48 ) Mandel, Inprecor , No. 297 , 13-26 novembre 1989 , p.3 .
( 49 ) Smoke, 21 décembre 1989 , p.18- 20.
(50 ) Groupe d’ Initiative pour un Parti Social – Démocrate RDA , 12 septembre 1989 dans Inprecor , No. 297 , 13-26 novembre 1989 , p.10 .
( 51 ) Inprecor , No. 295, 16-29 octobre 1989 , p.15- 16.
(52 ) Mandel, Inprecor , No. 295, 16-29 octobre 1989 , p. 15 .
( 53 ) Lénine , Ier Le Congrès de l’ enseignement scolaire extra 19 mai 1919 , T.29 , p.356 -362 .
( 54 ) Mandel, Inprecor , n ° 283 , 6 mars 1989 , p.4 .
(55 ) Inprecor , numéro spécial , Congrès mondial IXe , 1979 , p.236 -237 .
( 56 ) Mandel, Inprecor , n ° 283 , 6 mars 1989 , p.4 .
(57 ) Inprecor , n ° 283 , 6 mars 1989 , p.3 .
( 58 ) Inprecor , No. 287, 1st Mai 1989 , p.8 -9 .
(59 ) Rood , 6 juin 1989 , p.2 .
(60 ) Rood , 20 juin 1989 , p. 6-7 .
( 61 ) Rood , 20 juin 1989 , p.6 et 12.
( 62 ) Tien An Men 1989 : the dérive l’ émeute révisionniste à contre- révolutionnaire , Etudes dans Marxist , n ° 12, septembre . 1991 , Bruxelles , p. 62-63 .
( 63 ) Inprecor , No. 295, 16-29 octobre 1989 , p.15- 16.
( 64 ) Inprecor , No. 295, 16-29 octobre 1989 , p.18- 19.
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 translation By David  Romporti  

From → trotzkismo

One Comment
  1. Particularly instructive….looking forward to visiting again.

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